中世纪,百姓的文化水平?

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电路超载轻武器爱好者

2016-07-27 03:07
支持者: 纸赋

正常来讲你需要学习古英语,中世纪的英语和现代英语不通用,发音也不一样.


我可以告诉你的是,绝大多数人都是文盲,没有读写能力的文盲占到95%以上,这其中也包括一部分贵族,在那个时代也没有印刷术,书籍主要靠僧侣的抄写来流传,以至于当时书籍价格极其昂贵,只有富人能负担得起一本书,而且由于你本身看不懂它,所以看书的时候旁边站个识字的人代为朗读是很正常的事情.

普通人也有一些自己的文学,比如诗歌或是故事,尽管数量不多.创作和朗诵这样的东西是日常娱乐之一,但主要载体是依靠口口相传而不是书写下来.

先占着这个位置,有空我改改排版翻译一点.这书好像是有个繁体版本的我记得,但仅限于实体书,是台湾那边出版,我不知道哪里能买得到,也许去亚马逊会有点希望.译名好像是中世纪英国时间旅行者指南,或者类似的名字,我不记得了.


Languages In the modern world, languages only change gradually. Pick up a book in your national tongue from a century before you were born and you will have little or no difficulty reading it, even if it sounds old-fashioned. Things are quite different in the fourteenth century. Whole sections of society are giving up speaking one language (French) and starting to speak another (English). This is extraordinary in itself; but even more surprisingly it is not those at the bottom of the social spectrum who are relinquishing their native language but those at the top. Although the aristocracy of England have been French speakers since the arrival of the Normans in 1066, and even though Robert of Gloucester noted as recently as the late thirteenth century that “unless a man knows French, people think little of him,” linguistically everything changes over the course of the fourteenth century.
Why is this? The simple answer is that Robert of Gloucester’s dictum—that only French speakers
command respect—becomes obsolete. In 1300 it is true: if you cannot speak French, you cannot
command much respect outside your local community. The king speaks French and so do his lords,
knights, clerks, chaplains, and servants. All the official classes speak French. Very few high-ranking
members of society are fluent in English. Nobody commissions any literature in English, and what little English verse is written almost entirely takes the form of protest poetry, directed against the clergy and nobility, or is religious in purpose. But by 1350 noblemen are increasingly having their sons taught English. The change is largely due to the nationalist outlook of King Edward III, who speaks English, expresses a pride in the language, and even has his own mottoes emblazoned in it. In 1362 he decrees that pleas in court can be made in the English language—before then you can only plead in French— and in so doing he publicly declares his support for English as the “tongue of the nation.” In that same year his chancellor opens Parliament with a speech in English. By the end of the century, most aristocrats and prelates speak English as well as French. Edward III’s own son has many books in English, including one of the earliest translations of the Bible, and his grandson, Edward of York,

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Literature and Storytelling
Shocking though it may appear to you, you have something in common with these people who believe
in relics, fight tournaments, and hunt with falcons. Books. Many of them see literature as a satisfying
and enjoyable way to spend time. Of course, they might not actually pick up a book themselves; lords
and their families, together with members of their households, are accustomed to having books read to
them as they sit in the hall or chamber of an evening. 45 Nevertheless the music of a tale told well is as
popular as any other form of minstrelsy and as enjoyable as literature in the modern world.
Leading this move towards the enjoyment of literature is the royal family. All the fourteenth-century
kings and their spouses are keen on books. Among the many volumes in Edward II’s personal
possession are a Latin history of the kings of England, a biography of St. Edward the Confessor in
French, a Latin prayer book, and a “romance” in French. 46 “Romance” is the term for all fiction; it does
not necessarily relate to a love story—although many romances do incorporate love stories. Edward’s
consort, Queen Isabella, is an enthusiastic book collector. She has many volumes of religious devotion,
including a spectacular apocalypse; a two-volume Bible in French; a book of sermons in French; two
books of Hours of the Virgin; and various antiphonals, graduais, and missals for use in her chapel. She
also owns an encyclopedia (Brunetto Latini’s Trésor, in French) and at least two history books: Brut
(bound with the Trésor) and a book about the genealogy of the royal family. She also owns at least ten
romances. Among them are The Deeds of Arthur (bound in white leather), Tristan and Isolda, Aimeric
de Narbonne, Perceval and Gawain, and The Trojan War. 47
Ten romances suggests that Isabella is keen on reading. But this is not the full story. Not only does she
borrow books from her friends, she takes books from the royal lending library. This contains at least
340 titles and is housed in the Tower of London. 48 As a younger woman, she borrows romances for
herself and titles such as The History of Normandy and Vegetius’s text on warfare for her sons. Edward
III is not a bookish man but he can read and write and values books highly. Once, in 1335, he pays a
hundred marks (£66 13s 4d) for a single volume. Various people give him presents of books throughout
his life, and these are added to the royal library. A member of his household fetches one when the king
calls for something to be read to him in his chamber.
This is what book ownership means for the aristocracy: hundreds of valuable secular manuscripts in
English and French, and religious manuscripts in Latin being lent, borrowed, and read aloud. Joan,
Lady Mortimer, has four romances with her at Wigmore in 1322. Thomas, duke of Gloucester
(youngest son of Edward III), has forty-two religious books in his private chapel at Pleshey in 1397 and
eighty-four other books elsewhere in the castle, including romances such as Le Roman de la Rose (The
Romance of the Rose), Hector of Troy, The Romance of Lancelot, and The Deeds of Fulk Fitzwarin.

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